2012年1月5日星期四

唐纳德群和停车的经济学

洛杉矶杂志有一种热闹和知情的文章,“《字里行间》(Between the Lines)作者戴夫·加迪塔(Dave Gardetta)关于洛杉矶停车的历史和目的经常参考我的一个秘密英雄,虽然我从未见过他,:经济学人唐纳德群。(感谢Alex Tabarrok在指针的边缘革命中在这里。)这里有几个摘录:

"In the United States hundreds of engineers make careers out of studying traffic. Entire freeway systems like L.A.’s have been hardwired with sensors connecting to computer banks that aggregate vehicle flow, monitor bottlenecks, explain congestion in complicated algorithms. Yet cars spend just 5 percent of their lives in motion, and until recently there was only one individual in the country devoting his academic career to studying parking lots and street meters: Donald Shoup."

"Shoup is 73 years old. He drives a 1994 Infiniti but for the last three decades has steered a 1975 Raleigh bike two miles uphill daily in fair weather, from his home near the Mormon temple to the wooded highlands of UCLA’s north campus. ... This year Shoup’s 765-page book,免费停车的高成本在交通月刊、停车博客和他位于加州大学洛杉矶分校公共事务学院大楼办公室门外的走廊之外,他的这篇文章被重新发布,没有得到任何好评。他一点也不惊讶——“我所做的甚至连个名字都没有,”他说。然而,Shoup并不缺少助手。他的追随者称自己为Shoupistas,就像Sandinistas一样。他们在Facebook的一个页面上留言,建议妓女停车计时器,并给出方程式,量化为免费停车而花的时间与用来为扩张道路辩护的“假定时间价值”之间的矛盾。(妓女的东西更有趣。)”

"After 36 years, Shoup’s writings—usually found in obscure journals—can be reduced to a single question: What if the free and abundant parking drivers crave is about the worst thing for the life of cities? That sounds like a prescription for having the door slammed in your face; Shoup knows this too well. Parking makes people nuts. “I truly believe that when men and women think about parking, their mental capacity reverts to the reptilian cortex of the brain,” he says. “How to get food, ritual display, territorial dominance—all these things are part of parking, and we’ve assigned it to the most primitive part of the brain that makes snap fight-or-flight decisions. Our mental capacities just bottom out when we talk about parking. ...”

"L.A. has been a wellspring for a parking guru like Shoup to become self-realized. Our downtown contains more parking spaces per acre than any other city in the world and has been adding them at a rate of about 1,000 a year for a century. ... Whereas a skyscraper of a million square feet in New York may be required to have 100 parking spaces, an equal-size structure in L.A., like the U.S. Bank Tower, is compelled by the city to provide closer to 1,300 spaces. The maxim is wrong: L.A. wasn’t built around the car. It was built around the parking lot.... L.A. sits on a mountain-size surplus of parking it doesn’t know what to do with. ... San Francisco or New York might have ten times the parking each has now if they had buildings like 1100 Wilshire, where the first 15 floors are all garage. But the downtown areas of those cities won’t allow it. L.A. mandates it. In Los Angeles we attend dinner parties and wish out loud for more pedestrian-friendly neighborhoods, increased urban density, more mass transportation, less congestion, less air pollution, less reliance on our cars—and cheap, abundant parking wherever we go."
对于那些想要尝一尝Shoup的人,但不太觉得长达765页免费停车的高成本,我建议群在2011年4月的Cato Unbound问题上发表:免费停车或免费市场。一些摘录遵循,虽然有更多的细节和生动的例子,您需要点击录制的特定城市:


“城市应该为限制停车设置正确的价格,因为错误的价格会产生不好的结果。在路边停车价格过低、拥挤不堪的地方,有相当一部分的车流在寻找停车的地方。在1927年到2001年间进行的16项研究发现,在拥堵的交通中,平均有30%的汽车在寻找停车位. ...在一个拥堵的城市,免费的路边停车给少数碰巧在某一天走运的司机带来了短暂的好处,但它每天都会给其他人带来巨大的社会成本。街边停车管理,避免由于巡航的问题,一些城市已经开始调整他们的路边停车价格位置和时间产生85%的入住率抑制停车,这对应于一个空的空间在一个典型的块八抑制空间。……”
“司机想要自由停车,这永远不会改变。然而,可以改变的是人们可以想要的收费对于遏制停车。说服人们在其附近遏制遏制停车的最简单方法是致力于为附近的增加的公共服务支付所产生的收入,例如修理人行道,种植街道树木,并将公用电线放在地下。也就是说,该市可以提供每个街区这既包括按性能收费的路边停车新增的公共服务由计价器提供资金。性能定价将改善停车和收入将改善社区. ...”

“需要足够的停车位确实能给我们想要的所有免费停车位,但它也扭曲了交通选择,降低了城市设计,破坏了经济,恶化了环境。一些城市已经开始取消最低停车要求,至少在市中心是这样,原因有二。首先,停车要求阻止了小地块上的填充重建,在小地块上,新建建筑和所需的停车都是困难和昂贵的。其次,停车要求阻碍了许多老建筑的新用途,因为它们缺乏新用途所需的停车位。对报纸上关于最低停车要求的文章进行搜索后发现,自2005年以来,有129个城市取消了市中心的街边停车要求. ...最低停车要求可能是我们社会工程中最灾难性的实验,而停止要求街边停车则是社会工程……如果城市取消了对街边停车的要求,它们将不得不对限制停车空间收取性能价格,以防止溢出,但这将产生另一个巨大的好处:所有用于限制停车的资金将成为支付当地公共服务的新收入来源。路边停车将变得非常有价值,不需要计价器。取消住房和办公室的停车要求可以产生一系列的好处:更短的通勤时间,更少的交通流量,更健康的经济,更清洁的环境,更经济的住房....我们造成的混乱的好处是,我们偶然有了一个土地银行,可以随时为就业住房提供服务。这些土地现在被锁在需要的停车场,但如果城市取消他们不明智的停车要求,我们可以收回土地的规模将比得上荷兰. ...有些人认为美国人对汽车的喜爱是自由选择的。我觉得这其实是一场包办婚姻。通过建议分区条例中的最低停车要求,规划专业人士既是婚介,也是婚礼的主要成员。”