2012年10月9日星期二

大型足球减少大学等级吗?

俄勒冈大学鸭子足球队在上周末击败华盛顿之后在这个国家的第二次被评分为52-21。但是来自俄勒冈大学的三位经济学家 - 杰森姆·林德,伊萨克·斯旺文和格伦·瓦德德尔 - 正在使用他们学校的数据来问“对学生成就的威胁是大型体育威胁?”他们的分析出现在美国经济杂志:应用经济学2012,4(4):254-274。期刊在线不自由提供,但在学术界的许多人将通过图书馆订阅访问。

以下是他们采取的方法:“我们的主要数据来源是俄勒冈州学生成绩单大学,涵盖了从1999年秋季汇率管理的所有本科课程
quarter of 2007. ... We combine these data with readily available reports of the football team’s win-loss records ... Over our sample period, the winning percentage is 69.7 percent, on average, and varies from 45.5 percent to 90.9 percent." Because the researchers have data on individual students, they can make a statistical comparison of how the grade point average for an individual student changes from year to year, and see if it is correlated with the winning percentage of the football team. They can also do a number of other calculations, like adjusting for a time trend so that grade inflation is taken into account, as well as looking at how responses differ by gender, by income level (measured by which students are receiving financial aid), and by test scores before entering the university.


这里有一个额外的复杂元素:在大多数大学课程中,根据一些明确或隐含的“曲线”给出了成绩:即使所有学生的学术表现在绝对术语中差,如果一定比例学生们获得BS,CS等,然后等级点平均值可能不会显示绝对性能水平的下降。这表明两种比较:1)他们的数据中的男学生比女学生更有可能看足球,所以人们可以看看男女学生之间的成绩差距与足球队的获胜百分比有关;2)当足球队播放到冬季/春季阶级时,可以比较秋季等级。Lindo,Swensen和Waddell通过这种方式总结了结果:

"That is, our preferred estimates are based on considering how a student’s grades deviates from his or her own average grades as the winning percentage varies from its average, and then how this response varies across gender. With our analysis we show that male grades fall significantly with the success of the football team, both in absolute terms and relative to females. There is also pronounced heterogeneity among students, suggesting that the impact is largest among students from relatively disadvantaged backgrounds and those of relatively low ability. ...

“相对于女性,男性报告更有可能增加酒精消费,减少学习,并增加围绕足球队成功的派对。然而,男性和女学生都报告了他们的行为对运动的成功响应。这表明女性performance is likely affected by the performance of the football team as well, but that this effect is masked by grade curving. ... [A] 25 percentage point increase in the football team’s winning percentage will increase the gender gap in GPAs ... by 8.5 percent."
比较秋季和冬季学术术语后,“只有在四分之一的季度,我们与足球联系起来 - 秋季季度 - 在学术表现方面存在性别差距的动作,这些性能与运动成功有系统地不同。”

我会在高等教育的“真正目的”中,以及大量体育支持或破坏该目的的程度。但是对于那些持有大学体育的误解的人提供了对这些机构,林德,斯文文和瓦德尔队的学术课程提供财政补贴的误解:“在2010年,211分之211分之一的大学田间部门受到约束开放记录法律收到了他们的学生机构或一般基金的补贴。这些补贴很大而迅速增长。从2006年到2010年,平均补贴增加了25%,达到900万美元。“