quarter of 2007. ... We combine these data with readily available reports of the football team’s win-loss records ... Over our sample period, the winning percentage is 69.7 percent, on average, and varies from 45.5 percent to 90.9 percent." Because the researchers have data on individual students, they can make a statistical comparison of how the grade point average for an individual student changes from year to year, and see if it is correlated with the winning percentage of the football team. They can also do a number of other calculations, like adjusting for a time trend so that grade inflation is taken into account, as well as looking at how responses differ by gender, by income level (measured by which students are receiving financial aid), and by test scores before entering the university.
"That is, our preferred estimates are based on considering how a student’s grades deviates from his or her own average grades as the winning percentage varies from its average, and then how this response varies across gender. With our analysis we show that male grades fall significantly with the success of the football team, both in absolute terms and relative to females. There is also pronounced heterogeneity among students, suggesting that the impact is largest among students from relatively disadvantaged backgrounds and those of relatively low ability. ...比较秋季和冬季学术术语后，“只有在四分之一的季度，我们与足球联系起来 - 秋季季度 - 在学术表现方面存在性别差距的动作，这些性能与运动成功有系统地不同。”
“相对于女性，男性报告更有可能增加酒精消费，减少学习，并增加围绕足球队成功的派对。然而，男性和女学生都报告了他们的行为对运动的成功响应。这表明女性performance is likely affected by the performance of the football team as well, but that this effect is masked by grade curving. ... [A] 25 percentage point increase in the football team’s winning percentage will increase the gender gap in GPAs ... by 8.5 percent."