2013年9月4日星期三

全球供应链和国际贸易的变化性质

2013年世界投资报告来自贸发会议(联合国贸易和发展会议)是我对外国直接投资水平和趋势的统计数据来源。今年,第四章在“全球价值链:投资和发展贸易”上提供了一个有趣的额外文章。以下是跳出我的几点。

中间商品国际贸易的优势

国际贸易的教科书故事,其中一个易于识别的产品在一个国家,如汽车,电脑,纺织品,石油,葡萄酒或小麦在另一个国家的类似良好的交易中不再是世界贸易大多数的公平代表性。“大约60%的全球贸易,今天达到20万美元,包括在各种中间商品和服务的贸易
生产过程中的阶段是最终消费的商品和服务。“

这是通过全球价值链在星巴克运营时,中间货物交易的具体例子:

"For instance, even the relatively simple GVC [global value chain] of Starbuck’s (United States), based on one service (the sale of coffee), requires the management of a value chain that spans all continents; directly employs 150,000 people; sources coffee from thousands of traders, agents and contract farmers across the developing world; manufactures coffee in over 30 plants, mostly in alliance with partner firms, usually close to final market; distributes the coffee to retail outlets through over 50 major central and regional warehouses and distribution centres; and operates some 17,000 retail stores in over 50 countries across the globe. This GVC has to be efficient and profitable, while following strict product/service standards for quality. It is supported by a large array of services, including those connected to supply chain management and human resources management/development, both within the firm itself and in relation to suppliers and other partners. The trade flows involved are immense, including
农产品,制造生产和技术和管理服务的运动。“

这里是一些数字,展示了贸易在各国出口中的贸易的重要性。较暗的绿色酒吧显示了全球供应链的“上游”组件:即首次进口的外国增值份额是多少,但随后经济重新出口。更轻的绿色酒吧显示了全球供应链的“下游”组件:即,从该国出口的份额后来将成为来自另一个国家的出口增值的一部分。这两者的总和是“GVC参与率”,即来自一个国家的出口份额涉及全球价值链的上游或下游。



以下是国家列表:


跨国公司在国际贸易中的中心

全球供应链通常由跨国公司协调,通常通过对其他国家的外国直接投资进行外国直接投资(这就是为什么在一份专注于外国直接投资的报告中讨论全球供应链有意义)。事实上,通过拥有外国子公司,合同制造业,特许经营或武器的组合,通过拥有外国子公司,合同制造业,特许经营或武器的组合,相对较少的跨国公司是协调和开展绝大多数国际贸易的组织。

“在欧盟,10%的出口公司通常占出口量的70%至80%,而该数字占美国出口总额的96%,在约2,200家公司(每一方面)cent of exporters, most of which are TNC [transnational corporation] parent companies or foreign affiliates) account for more than 80 per cent of total trade. The international production networks shaped by TNC parent companies and affiliates account for a large share of most countries’ trade. On the basis of these macro-indicators of international production and firm-level evidence, UNCTAD estimates that about 80 per cent of global trade (in terms of gross exports) is linked to the international production networks of TNCs ..."

全球价值链和经济发展

显然,全球供应链导致进口国的消费者价格低于他们的消费者 - 否则是跨国公司发展这种链条的大多数原因。他们还为跨国公司提供利润吗?但全球供应链可以帮助低收入和中等收入国家吗?答案取决于几个因素。


  • 全球价值链中的职位是否有助于额外学习?“这是一个呈现学习和升级潜力的链条吗?它是否可以通过可应用于其他产品或服务的公司获得的能力?在服装行业中,墨西哥公司已经能够获得新的技能和功能,成为全套供应商,而非洲成长和机会法案下的撒哈拉以南非洲供应服装似乎很困难,以便超越削减,制作和修剪。“
  • 主持人经济是否提供了支持性的环境?"Is there an environment conducive to firm-level learning and have investments been made in technical management skills? Are firms willing to invest in developing new skills, improving their capabilities and searching for new market opportunities? Local firms’ capabilities and competences determine their ability to gain access to cross-border value chains, and to be able to learn, benefit from and upgrade within GVCs [global value chains]. Government policies can facilitate this process."

整体模式似乎是参与全球价值链实际上通常会受益于经济增长和发展,但有一堆可能难以治疗工人,环境影响,与当地机构和东道国政府的互动的问题。等等。