2016年2月5日星期五

100年前美国工人的生活

Carol Boyd Leon写了“1915年美国工人的生活”2016年2月的问题每月劳动评论,由美国劳工统计局出版。一个世纪前1915年是出版的每月劳动评论开始了。当我的祖父母出生时,它大致。我承认我是这类历史比较的傻瓜:对我来说,这就像一瞥时间机器。以下是一些捕获我的眼睛的比较(始终省略脚注)。

"More than half (52.4 percent) of the 100 million people living in the United States [in 1915] were less than 25 years old; by comparison, the U.S. population has grown over the last century to more than 321 million, and only one-third of that total is under age 25. Not quite 5 percent of the population in 1915 was age 65 or older, compared with 14 percent today. Life expectancy at birth for people born in 1915 was just 54.5 years, whereas the most recent life expectancy estimate is 78.8 years."

“大约1915年的一半人口在农村地区生活,意思是居民少于2,500名。相比之下,5人中只有1人在一个农村地区生活。毫不奇怪,美国内部的流动性更加限制is now, and people born in the United States were likely to stay within their home state. In 1915, about 78 percent of U.S.-born individuals were living in the state in which they had been born, compared with 59 percent in 2010."

劳动力参与率(当然只措施只在家庭外的支付就业)对每个年龄组的男性表现出大量堕落,每个年龄组的女性都会很大崛起。

“[i] 1915年,只有25岁及以上的人口占18%的人口已经完成了高中,只有14-17岁的人中只有约14%的人在高中。......虽然失败毕业仍然是一个问题, more than 86 percent of the U.S. population age 25 in 2010–14 had completed high school or more."

近三分之一的美国人在1910年返回农业工人,而今天占劳动力的1%。然而,1910年不到5%的工人是专业或技术人员,而今天占员工的约28%,而不是1910年的工人占服务工人,而今天的劳动人员则为17%。

就人们工作的非耐旱地,大约三分之一的劳动力在1910年制造业,而今天的下降率为9%。在施工中的非农劳动力的份额大约是1910年的两倍于今天(现在的9.1%,当时与4.5%),在今天的运输和公用事业公司的股份是1910年的三倍(12.6%)与3.8%现在)。1910年,近15%的劳动力在国内或个人服务中,与今天约为1%。在另一边,“其他专业服务”的工人占有率从1910年的3%攀升至今天的28.9%,批发和零售业和政府的股票也攀升。

“如果你在1915年里活着,你有机会租了你的房子或公寓; 1920年房主的租房者的比例约为4比1。相比之下,到2004年,69%的美国家庭拥有而不是租用他们的住所,虽然that proportion slipped to 64 percent by the fourth quarter of 2015.24 The cost of a home in 1915 was about $3,200 ($75,600 in 2015 dollars), compared with today’s median home value of $183,500. ... Mortgages were typically for just 5 to 7 years and required downpayments ranging from 40 to 50 percent of the home purchase price. In contrast, the median downpayment on a new mortgage in 2015 was 10 percent of the purchase price. Ethnic groups formed their own loan associations because banks could raise the mortgage rate, reduce the loan term to 3 years, and foreclose after two late payments."

"Whether or not your abode was a single-family home or a crowded tenement, it probably was heated by a potbelly stove or by a coal furnace in the basement. It wasn’t until the coal shortage during World War I that oil or gas-powered central heating became a popular replacement for the hand-fired coal furnaces and stoves. Your home probably wasn’t yet wired for electricity; less than a third of homes had electric lights rather than gas or kerosene lamps. However, electricity was the byword of new middle-class homes, which sported electric toasters and coffee pots. ... Telephones could be found in at least a few million homes. However, direct dialing did not exist until the 1920s. If your home had an indoor toilet, the toilet likely was located in a closet or a storage area. It would be a few more years until it was common for toilets, sinks, and bathtubs to share a room. ... Although some households had running water in 1915, many rural families and city dwellers did not. Less affluent residents still heated a boiler full of water on a coal or wood range, rubbed clothes on a washboard, used a hand ringer, and hung clothes to dry. Homes without gas or electric heat were harder to clean because of soot from the fireplace or wood stove."

"A high percentage of people in cities and factory towns walked to work. If you were like most people at the time, however, you lived in a nonurban area. If you didn’t work at home, you also may have traveled to your job by foot, or you may have gotten there on horseback or by mule. ... In urban areas, 1915–20 was the heyday of streetcars: miles of track peaked just 2 years later at nearly 73,000. Horse-drawn streetcars and buses led to home construction some 3 to 5 miles from downtown. Within the city, electric streetcars and trolleys may have been your means of transportation, speeding you to your job at 20 miles per hour. ... Although automobiles had only recently been invented, an estimated 2.3 million cars were registered in 1915. Olds Motor Works, which was early on the scene, produced some 5,000 cars in 1904, but these were overshadowed by the popularity of the more affordable Ford Motor Company’s Model T, colloquially referred to as “Tin Lizzy.""

“最新的职场愤怒是科学的管理,这涉及运动和时间研究,以确定执行工作任务的最有效的方法。1911年,Frederick Winslow Taylor对科学管理的原则写了一项精选原则 - 这提出了这一点通过培训员工进行更高的工作场所效率可以通过培训员工进行单一工作,例如打开邮件,检查球轴承,执行会计任务或销售产品。泰勒主义将劳动力推向其逻辑极端,但没有考虑工作者满意度。同样,在1913年,亨利福特将装配线建立在他的福特模型-T汽车制造工厂中,以提高效率和生产。“

“对于全职雇用的工人,工作周 - 当没有减少到兼职时 - 一般 - 通常是长期的。制造业的工人每周工作55小时,而制造业的生产工人平均约有49小时的付款时间work. The latter figure may reflect that few workers indeed were compensated for time off, and factory workers hours could be shortened from one day to the next. It wasn’t until 1919 that close to half of American workers had a 48-hour workweek; in 1915, only one-eighth of workers had a workweek capped at 48 hours."

“BLS于1913年报告了约23,000名工业死亡,3800万,相当于每10万名工人的61人死亡率。相比之下,关于总体职业死亡人数的最新数据显示每10万名工人的3.3人死亡。”

“根据一个美国新闻和世界报告文章比较1915年和2015年收入,1915年回来。。。根据人口普查,如果您每年赚取687美元,您就会进行平均水平。也就是说,如果你是一个男人。如果你是一个女人,将这个数字削减大约一半。“根据2015美元,男性687美元的平均工资等于16,063美元,远低于今天的收入。2014年15岁及以上的男性的中位数为40,638美元(为全职工作的男性50,383美元),2014年的女性中位数为28,394美元(为全职工作的女性39,621美元)。......如果考虑到现在的福利,那么工资比较会变得更加戏剧性,这大幅增加了一些工人的总补偿。相比之下,益处微薄或更常见,一百年前不存在。“

“虽然一些雇主受到最低薪酬规定的约束,但特别是雇主
女性,赚得不到最低工资。例如,Tenler报道了“在纽约市
服装行业,在最低工资议定书中运营,一名经济学家在1914年发现
调查的不同职业中的工人中的四分之一到一半的工人赚得少于
最低薪酬,“雇主声称有关工人是学习者。”“学习
期间有时是未付的,雇主在一个赛季而不是赛季之后奠定了学徒
增加他们的工资。“