2019年9月27日星期五

年龄较大的美国人就业模式

美国人的生活更长时间,并且更有可能在60年代和70年代工作。这国会预算办公室概述了“55至79岁的人民就业”(2019年9月)。CBO写道:

"Between 1970 and the mid-1990s, the share of people ages 55 to 79 who were employed—that is, their employment-to-population ratio—dropped, owing particularly to men’s experiences. In contrast, the increase that began in the mid-1990s and continued until the 2007–2009 recession resulted from increases in the employment of both men and women. During that recession, the employment-to-population ratio for the age group overall fell, and the participation rate stabilized—with the gap indicating increased difficulty in finding work. The ensuing gradual convergence of the two measures reflects the slow recovery from the recession. The fall in the employment of men before the mid-1990s, research suggests, resulted partly from an increase in the generosity of Social Security benefits and pension plans, the introduction of Medicare, a decline in the opportunities for less-skilled workers, and the growth of the disability insurance system. Although those factors probably also affected women, the influence was not enough to offset the large increase in the employment of women of the baby-boom generation relative to those of the previous generation, most of whom were not employed."
以下是一些潜在因素可能有助于理解这种模式。如果一个人通过男性/女性和年龄组分手,那么它变得明显,虽然55-61岁的人不太可能工作,但另一组是。这里的潜在理由是,现在55岁以上的女性更有可能在生活中的员工比1990年55岁的妇女更早的妇女更容易进入(已付费)劳动力。因此,老年妇女工作的一部分是工作的一部分只是反映了更多生活中的工作,在生活中延迟。但
在生命中老年人工作的人可能会与教育程度上升有关的可能性:也就是说,有更多教育的人更有可能拥有更好的薪酬并且涉及更低的身体压力,因此更有可能继续工作。然而,有趣的是,62-79岁的男性股权股份的上涨率大致相同,以不同于教育水平的百分点。对于女性而言,对于高等教育水平的人的就业份额增加显着高。

关于生活在生活中是否应该看到一件好事,有一个有趣的问题。如果增加是由于那些就拥有了有趣或有益的工作,并且想要继续工作,那么这似乎是积极的。然而,觉得觉得如果有工作的人,但主要是因为他们需要或想要这笔钱,而且他们将在经济上不安全,那么生活中的工作时间更长就会更加麻烦。

从这个角度来看,如果老年人在受教育水平降低的人中的就业升高,可以争辩说,如果在受教育水平降低的地方 - 谁平均可能有不太理想的工作。但如果老年人在教育群体(男性)均匀分布或在更受教育的(女性)中均匀分发或发生更多的人,那么就会更加难以使人在老年人之间的大部分工作由于低技能的工人在经济压力下取得糟糕的工作。

还有人报告称他们的健康状况“非常好/优秀”的份额也是如此,在过去的二十年里一直在上升,并且只有“好”的份额也一直在上升。相反,股票报告称,他们的健康是“公平/穷人”一直落在雄性和女性中。同样,这种模式表明老年人的一些额外工作正在发生,因为老年人的更大份额更能做。

值得一提的另一个变更是社会保障规则已经发展方式,使人们在65之后继续工作,并且仍然至少收到一些好处。CBO解释:
"Changes in Social Security policy that relate to the retirement earnings test (RET) have made working in one’s 60s more attractive. The RET specifies an age, an earnings threshold, and a withholding rate: If a Social Security claimant is younger than that age and has earnings higher than the specified threshold, some or all of his or her retirement benefits are temporarily withheld. Those withheld benefits are at least partially credited back in later years. Over time, the government has gradually made the RET less stringent by raising earnings thresholds, lowering withholding rates, and exempting certain age groups. For instance, in the early 1980s, the oldest age at which earnings were subject to the RET was reduced from 71 to 69, and in 2000, that age was further lowered to the FRA. (In 2000, the FRA was 65, and it rose to 66 by 2018.) Lowering the oldest age at which earnings are subject to the RET allowed more people to claim their full Social Security benefits while they continued working."
生活生活中有多长的问题是“应该”工作在我看来一个强烈的个人决定,而是一个决定将受到健康,工作选择,薪酬,社会保障规则,关于访问退休账户和养老金的规则的决定。但是,广泛地说,我似乎是美国人活着更好,更健康的原因,他们的份额较大,应该留在劳动力。更加老年人工作的模式也是社会保障金融健康的好消息和美国经济的更广泛的健康。